Research Process Model + Career Growth Hypothesis
Based on my 2017 article [Medium] about research role development. Here's the ultra-condensed version. Now (mid-2019) I don't think this is really the answer—but it's a good start.
One miss that this doesn't capture is that even a newer or junior researcher can own the end-to-end process for smaller or less complex projects. This model doesn't show the interplay between progression and the nature of the work itself.
The spiritual successor and extension of this work are the Wardley maps of researcher skills evolution in the Research Skills Framework. See the RSF Insights report.